Section 192

Deduction of tax at source - Salary

Deduction by ship-owners - Ship-owners are liable to deduct tax at source under section 192(1). For the purposes of determining the rate of tax applicable, the total salary of the seaman for the year may be estimated as the amount of wages due for a period of ten months on the basis of the monthly wages fixed as per articles of agreement. In cases, where the agreement itself covers a period of more than ten months, the estimated income of such actual period would have to be taken into account for the purpose of tax deduction. If an agreement starts towards the latter part of the year and any seaman satisfies his employer that his income for the year as a whole would not be above the taxable limit, no tax need be deducted for that financial year.

The return of salaries may be made by the Indian employer or the agent of the foreign employer within the time mentioned in section 206.

Considering that the ships would be on the high seas for weeks, payment of the tax may be made quarterly as provided in rule 30.

In respect of Indian seamen engaged on foreign-owned ships, the agents in India of the foreign principal will be responsible for deduction of the tax at source under section 192(1).—Letter : F. No. 12/71/65-IT(B) (extract), dated 5-3-1966.

Deduction by successor employer - The present employer will be required to deduct tax at source on the aggregate amount of salary (including salary received from former or other employer).—Circular : No. 504 [F. No. 275/138/87-IT(B)], dated 8-2-1988.

Deduction on LIC premia, etc. - The deduction provided under section 80C (now rebate u/s 88) will be available to the assessees in respect of sums paid up to 31st March of the financial year towards purchase of National Savings Certificates, etc.—Circular : No. 483 [F. No. 275/64/86-IT(B)], dated 4/31-3-1987.

Exemptions/deductions to be taken into account by employer - Exemptions/deductions to be allowed by employers while computing total income of employees for the assessment year 2004-2005 (financial year 2003-2004) :

- leave travel concession/assistance

See section 10(5)

- death-cum-retirement gratuity

See section 10(10)

- payment in commutation of pension

See section 10(10A)

- leave encashment

See section 10(10AA)

- retrenchment compensation

See section 10(10B)

- payment received under certain voluntary retirement schemes

See section 10(10C)

- sum received under LIC policy

See section 10(10D)

- payment from provident fund, etc.

See section 10(11)/(13)

- house rent allowance

See section 10(13A)

- specified allowances

See section 10(14)

- interest on deposit in Deposit Scheme for Retiring Government/Public Sector Employees

See section 10(15)(iv)(i)

- gallantary awards

See section 10(18)

- standard deduction

See section 16(i)

- tax on employment

See section 16(iii)

- entertainment allowance

See section 16(ii)

- value of medical treatment in hospital maintained by employer

See section 17(2), proviso

- reimbursement of expenses on medical treatment in certain hospitals

See section 17(2), proviso

- payment by employer directly to approved hospitals

See section 17(2), proviso

- medical insurance premium paid/reimbursed by employer

See section 17(2), proviso

- other medical reimbursement

See section 17(2), proviso

- expenditure on medical treatment abroad

See section 17(2), proviso

- annuity plan of LIC

See section 80CCC

- health insurance premium (mediclaim)

See section 80D

- expenditure on medical treatment, etc., of handicapped dependent relative

See section 80DD

- expenditure on medical treatment for self or relative

See section 80DDB

- repayment of loan taken by higher education

See section 80E

- contributions to :




Amount allowable



National Defence Fund




Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund




Prime Minister’s Drought Relief Fund




National Children’s Fund




Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust




Rajiv Gandhi Foundation




Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund




Prime Minister’s Armenia Earthquake




Relief Fund




Africa (Public Contributions-India) Fund


See section 80G


National Foundation for Communal Harmony




Chief Minister’s Earthquake Relief Fund, Maharashtra




National Blood Transfusion Council




State Blood Transfusion Council




Army Central Welfare Fund




Indian Naval Benevolent Fund




Air Force Central Welfare Fund




APCM Cyclone Relief Fund, 1996




National Illness Assistance Fund




Chief Minister's Relief Fund




University/Educational Institutions approved by prescribed authority




National Sports Fund




National Cultural Fund




Technology Development Fund




National Trust for welfare of persons with Autism, Cerebral, Palsy, Mental retardation, Multiple Disabilities




- rent paid

See section 80GG

- interest, etc.

See section 80L

- remuneration received in foreign currency

See section 80RRA

- deduction where employee suffers from permanent physical disability/mental retardation

See section 80U

Tax rebates allowed in computing tax deductible at source from salaries:

- rebate under section 88

- rebate under section 88B in case of senior citizens

- rebate under section 88C to women

Circular : No. 9/2003, dated 18-11-2003.

Certificate for no deduction of tax to be obtained by employee - Where an employee claims that his salary is not chargeable to income-tax and therefore, no income-tax should be deducted at source from the salary receivable by him, the employer should require the employee to obtain from the concerned ITO a certifi­cate under section 197(1) authorising no deduction or deduction at such lower rates as may be prescribed in the said certificate.—Circular : No. 147 [F.No. 275/80/74-ITJ], dated 28-10-1974.

Liability of employer is absolute - The liability of the employer to deduct and pay tax under section 192(1) is absolute. Failure to do so would attract li­ability to pay interest  under section 201(1A) as well as other penal provisions under the Act.—Letter : F. No. 237/4/75-A & PAC, dated 23-11-1976.

Adjustment of excess deduction - Excess payment (difference between the actual payment made by the deductor and the tax deducted at source or that deductible, whichever is more) can be refunded, independently of the Income-tax Act, to the person responsible for making such payment subject to necessary administrative safeguards. This amount should be adjusted against the existing tax liability under any of the Direct Tax Acts. After meeting such liability the balance amount, if any, should be refunded to the assessee.—Circular : No. 285 [F. No. 275/77/79-IT(B)], dated 21-10-1980.

Refund to non-resident employee who has left India - Where non-residents are deputed to work in India and the taxes are borne by their employers, and an employee to whom refund is due has already left India by the time assessment order is passed and he has no bank account in India, there may be no objection to giving the refund to the employer if the non-resident assessee duly gives an authorisation in this regard. In such cases, the procedure laid down in Circular No. 285, dated 21-10-1980 needs to be followed—Circular : No. 707, dated 11-7-1995.

In case of crew members of foreign-going ships - Since, in the case of members of crew of foreign-going Indian ships, who are not likely to be in India for a period or periods exceeding 182 days in a year, income which accrues or arises outside India and is also received outside India is not liable to tax in India, the shipping companies and other persons responsible for paying salary to such members of crew may take these factors into account while computing the amount to be deducted as tax and deduct only so much of tax as would be chargeable on the estimated income liable to tax in India. If the shipping company or other person responsible for paying to such members of crew subsequently finds that any person who was earlier considered as not likely to be resident in India, and deduction of tax at source was made on that basis is now likely to be resident in India, the shipping company or the other person responsible for making the payment, may increase the deduction so as to adjust any deficiency arising out of an earlier short deduction or non-deduction during the same financial year - Circular : No. 586, dated 28-11-1990.

Where arrears are paid due to 5th Pay Commission recommendations - The Central Government has recently notified new scales of pay and allowances for different categories of Government employees based on the recommendations of the 5th Pay Commission. In addition, the employee will be entitled to substantial amounts of arrears. As a result of this increase, many employees whose incomes according to the old pay scales were below the taxable limit would now enter the tax net. Many other employees would move to higher brackets for application of the tax rates. As per section 192, the person respon­sible for paying any income under the head ‘Salaries’ is required, at the time of payment, to deduct income-tax on the amount payable, at the average rate of income-tax computed on the basis of the rates in force for the financial year in which the payment is made, on the estimated income of the assessee for that financial year. All DDOs must, therefore, ensure that proper and adequate tax is deducted from the disbursement to employees of not only additional pay and allowances but also of arrears payable to Central Government employees as a result of the implementation of the revised pay scales - Circular : No. 756, dated 10-10-1997.

Vide Circular No. 758, dated 7-11-1997 it is clarified that a large number of Drawing and Disbursing Officers have not deducted the full quantum of the tax liability on the arrears paid to Central Government employees as a consequence of the recently announced revision of the pay-scales. The deductions have been made in an ad hoc manner. This is in gross violation of the provisions of the Income-tax Act and is liable to attract penal consequences including prosecution.  All Drawing and Disbursing Officers in the Central Government and various organisations under it are advised to recompute the correct tax liability of every employee, on the arrears drawn by him and immediately recover the full tax liability thereon. They should further ensure that the tax so recovered is paid to the account of the Central Government by 20th November, 1997. Drawing and Disbursing Officers who fail to comply with the provisions of section 192 of the Income-tax Act, read with the above-referred Circulars, would be liable to pay interest under sub-section (1A) of section 201 and to other penal consequences under the said law - Circular : No. 758, dated 7-11-1997.

Issue of certificate in Form No. 16 - Once tax has been deducted under section 192, the tax-deductor is bound by section 203 to issue the certificate of tax deducted in Form 16. No employee-employer relationship is necessary for this purpose.  The certificate in Form No. 16 cannot be denied on the ground that the tax deductor, i.e., banks, are unaware of the other income of payees (i.e., pensioners drawing their pensions through banks) - Circular : No. 761, dated 13-1-1998.